The Intensive case management (ICM) program is an evidence-informed, integrated case management framework developed to reduce chronic juvenile offending behaviour.

ICM works intensively with high and very high-risk young people and their families or carers to address the things in their life that contribute to chronic juvenile offending.

The program:

  • holds young people accountable for their offending behaviour
  • supports pro-social community integration
  • promotes community safety
  • works to divert siblings away from the criminal justice system
  • helps improve school engagement
  • promotes pro-social decision-making.


The department commissioned Nous Group to complete an outcomes evaluation of ICM in 2022. You can learn more in the:

Key findings

  • ICM is an appropriate program model for use in Youth Justice service centres, as it offers an effective case management approach for high-risk young people and their families.
  • ICM is more effective than alternative Youth Justice approaches in reducing offending for more serious offenders.
  • The ICM program model is regarded as being culturally-appropriate, particularly for First Nations families.
  • Qualitative evidence suggests ICM is effective in achieving outcomes at the family and systems level.
  • The reductions in reoffending due to ICM participation yield strong, positive economic benefits for the criminal justice system and broader community.
  • ICM was well-implemented and understood across sites. This meant that sites stayed true to the program model.

Outcomes from ICM

  • More than 40% of young people who did ICM have not reoffended since completing the program. For some young people this is a period of more than 3 years.
  • ICM reduced the 6 month reoffending count by 51% for young people engaged in the program. This is a 22% greater reduction than the comparison group who received different supports.
  • There has been an average (median) reduction of 51% in the frequency of offending.
  • There has been an average (median) reduction of 72% in the proportion of crimes that involve harming another person.
  • There is a positive cost-benefit to the justice system and the community of $9.8–19.1 million, when considering losses incurred due to youth crime.
  • Early intervention with siblings as part of the program helped to lower their risk profile, potentially diverting them from the youth justice system.
  • Young people's family functioning was improved with enhanced parental capacity and home environment.
  • System gains were made with changed access to government services, including improved engagement with the services or no longer needing the service.

Last updated 7 June 2023

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